The Internet of Things (IoT) is a category of products and systems that use computation and web connection. It’s a tough category to describe because computation and web connection enable so many different things. One thing is for sure, these aren’t the products of the 20th century. They are something new. And they behave differently. Whereas many products of the 20th century were stand alone and kind of static, 21st-century products work in systems and get smarter over time. Here are a few forms that you might see or imagine:
SOCIAL. Some IoT systems allow you to coordinate tasks with other people. Uber is essentially an IoT system: it allows drivers and people who need rides to coordinate their goals. Another social IoT system that does this is FitBit. They have a “challenge” feature that allows you to set competitive goals with the FitBit community.
GEO-SPATIAL. For some IoT systems, location really matters. If you are tracking air pollution with on-the-ground sensors, for example, you are going to want to see that data on a map. Autonomous vehicles need to sense and respond to geospatial data too.
HUB and SPOKE. Not every single object needs full computing power on board. That would be a waste of money and energy. Some systems work better in a hub and spoke model. Philips hue, for example, has a hub that communicates with multiple light bulbs throughout a home. Yesterday my students imagined a cattle tracking system that had a light sensor device on each animal, and that data from those sensors would be gathered by a mobile hub (a drone).
BIO-SENSING. We have sensors that can sense and track living things. Fitbit, mentioned above, is one. Other systems for human patients or herds of animals are emerging and enabling easier, and more effective tracking of vitals. “I’ve fallen and I can’t get up” wearables ought to be IoT enabled by now, yes?
SENSE and RESPOND. Mentioned above with autonomous vehicles, some systems not only gather data through sensing but enable the system to act on that data in real time. You could imagine a hydroponic farming system that can sense the temperature of the system and actuate heating and cooling as needed. If only the HVAC systems in office buildings worked as well!
What other forms of IoT can you think of?